Tag Archives: socialemotionallearning

My Gamification Journal: Part 2 (Immersion)

In my last post, I described my first steps toward creating a gamified math class using Khan Academy. I started, not with the goal of gamifying, but with the need to tailor instruction to meet the needs of individual students. Introducing Khan Academy helped me to assign different work to different students and assess their progress, while reducing the time I spent grading and planning. At first, I used Khan mostly as a tool for homework and as a resource for teacher-centered instruction. In this entry, I’ll describe how I fine-tuned the use of blended learning, with a focus on the following:

  • Using points and leaderboards to increase engagement
  • Establishing routines to help students use the platform most effectively
  • Learning how to make the most of the data generated by Khan to understand my students individual habits and needs
  • Developing a collaborative learning model around the blended platform
  • Transitioning from a traditional “one-size-fits-all” curriculum to a course designed around individual learning plans

Step 4: Let the Games Begin (March-April 2014)

After rolling out the Khan Academy homework program in January, I started to get the first valuable information that helped me better understand my students. For the first time, I had an objective measure of the amount of time students were spending on their work. In addition, Khan had built-in gamified elements that were surprisingly effective – students received “energy points” for watching videos and answering questions; in addition, badges recognized larger accomplishments, and status indicators measured their progress through grade levels.

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Graph of Student Activity from Khan Academy

I initially set a goal of 20 minutes per day, spread across any 5 days each week. I thought that making homework time flexible would give students more ownership over their time. I wanted to recognize that students have active lives outside of school – rather than e-mailing back and forth with parents asking their child be excused because their soccer game ran late the night before, students could simply take that night off and complete their minutes another night.

Once Khan Academy provided me data on “time spent,” it became immediately clear that I had made of errors in my subjective assessment of effort. While in some cases I had accurately estimated how much time students were spending on their work, in others, I had credited bright students with more time than they actually spent, and I did not fully appreciate the effort of some struggling students. While measuring the amount of time students were spending on homework was helpful, it was only the first step – I had to make sure that those who were putting in effort were able to maintain it, and those who were not would improve.

Fortunately, I found that just such a mechanism was built right in to Khan Academy. The first element of gamification that caught on in my class were Khan’s ‘energy points,’ which students earned by watching videos or answering questions. At the time, I was completing activities on Khan Academy as a student so I would know what my students were encountering. Since I could go through problem sets quickly, I earned a lot of points in a short period of time, and when I projected activities on the board, students would point out how many points I had earned. Soon, a little competition developed where a number of students tried to beat my energy point score. One student in particular (if you’re reading this, you know who you are!) was so determined that he spent many times the required minutes, and soon I was unable to keep up with him.

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Khan Academy Leaderboard

Before we began, I thought some of these were a little silly, and I doubted if students would really care about earning points and badges on a math website, but I was surprised when I saw the excitement it added to the class. Since every student is motivated differently, it was helpful to have a number of ways to encourage different students. Khan also began e-mailing me a weekly ‘leaderboard’ that listed students in order of the number of minutes they had completed that week. Every Monday, I would show the top students on the leaderboard. The students who had not made the leaderboard weren’t called out for it, but most of them really wanted to make it up there for the next week. Sometimes I would use “promotions” such as offering a trip to the park if everyone made the leaderboard for the week.

Step 5: Fine-tuning (May-June 2014)

Soon, homework completion in my classes had improved significantly, which also helped increase engagement in lessons and activities. As time went on, I tailored the specific rules in response to what I heard or observed. For one, some parents complained that 20 minutes 5 nights a week (100/week) was too much, so my principal and I decided 15 per night (75/week) would be sufficient.

I also had to adjust my grading policies to account for the quality and not just the quantity of time spent. Since I entered the homework grades each week, some students would simply wait until Sunday night and do all 75 minutes in one night, which I knew was a much less effective learning strategy than spreading time out over the week. Students could earn energy points for watching videos, and some would just set up a video to play on their computer while they did other things. One inventive student even realized he could play movies in several windows at the same time and complete a week’s worth of homework in ten minutes. If he hadn’t chosen to use the same video, I might not have even noticed! I then added a rule that students would only get credit for the time from a video if they completed the problem set associated with it. It could be a bit tedious to play detective on what activities students completed, but I really only needed to look deeper if I thought something didn’t seem right – the goal was creating a culture in which students come to appreciate why they are doing the work, instead of forcing them to do work.

Other students were skipping the recommendations I had made and exploring other topics. In some cases, I thought it was great that an advanced student was trying out Trigonometry; when a student struggled with dividing whole numbers, though, and was instead spending time on Calculus (unsuccessfully) or “Counting to 5” (even successfully), we would have to have a talk. I sometimes had to award less than full credit to students who completed their minutes but seemed to be ‘gaming the system.’ Since I wanted to encourage exploration, though, I told them that they needed to spend at least half of their time on my recommendations, and they could spend the other half on any activities they chose. As time went on, I encountered a number of similar situations and had to make value judgments about when I would follow their lead and when to insist they follow mine.

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Recommendations page

While energy points and minutes of homework were instrumental in getting the blended learning program started, at some point, I needed to involve other metrics of student progress. As much as I liked the fact that students could work at their own level, it was becoming clear that some students had not stepped up to take ownership as I stepped back my “management” of their learning. Still, I didn’t want to cater to the lowest common denominator and revert to a system where everyone does the same work, so I had to look for alternatives.

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Grade level progress for a full class

I started setting guidelines about the minimum grade level progress I expected. Some students had already mastered all of the 4th and 5th grade level course work on the platform, while others had only completed about 30% of 4th grade. I set class goals, such as ‘everyone completes at least 50% of 4th grade’ by a certain date, gradually moving the bar forward. That way, advanced students could move ahead and other students could work on remedial material but still know when they needed to put in extra effort to push forward. If students were really not capable of meeting the minimum milestones, I would work out a separate plan with them individually so they still had a milestone to work toward.

Step 6: Into the Void (Fall 2014)

For all the challenges involved in the roll-out, the initial benefits of blended learning were substantial. Instead of spending hours each week correcting homework assignments, students were receiving feedback on their answers in real-time with no human grading required. They were also able to access hints and videos while completing assignments at home. I was able to understand and target gaps in students’ foundational understanding and to provide personalized learning paths for all of my students. The difference in achievement and engagement between the first and second halves of the 2013-14 school year was so stark, I decided to take the leap and drop the textbook entirely for the coming year – we were rolling out a new 1:1 iPad program for 5th grade, and I took the opportunity to rely on Khan as the backbone of the curriculum.

Ditching the textbook was a big change, and not without its challenges. I started to realize, though, that the content available through Khan Academy offered everything a text offered and more. Some students had begun approaching new problem sets by pressing the ‘hint’ button again and again until they had shown all the hints available – the result looked just like a page out of a textbook – even without videos, students were able to learn new topics without being specifically taught them.

Khan Academy “Hints”

 

Others preferred to dive right in to new topics with a combination of applying prior knowledge and trial-and-error. When I compared the new way to the old, it seemed like the only thing missing was the paper. Using Khan as an in-class teaching tool as opposed to just a homework tool helped me to better understand the process students were using to approach new concepts or practice old ones, and these observations eventually became part of our established routines, and the instructions I gave to incoming students the following year.

The first issue that jumped out in students’ processes was that many students were not writing out their steps when solving problems online. Khan has a built in ‘scratchpad’ feature, but it’s just not the same as writing on paper; aside from the fact that it is hard to write legibly with a finger and the space is too small, the work disappears when a student moves to the next problem so there is nothing for me to refer to when a student has difficulty. Reminding students to write out their work did not have enough of an impact, so I began including written work as part of the homework/classwork grade: I still let them decide whether a given problem could be done in their head, but they needed to at least list the problem sets they had completed and the time spent on each one. I provided each student with a graph paper math journal and checked-up regularly on their entries.

Making a smooth transition to blended learning, though, took more than just getting students to keep journal entries. I was fortunate to have a principal who was very supportive of technology and innovation, but these new methods raised a whole host of concerns for parents and some administrators. I had not fully realized the technophobia present in a place as modern as New York City – some parents insisted that their children ‘couldn’t learn from computers,’ or seemed to think that students spent their entire math periods staring, zombie-like, at computer screens while I hung out at my desk drinking coffee with my feet up. Others were so accustomed to a yearly program (September is whole numbers, October is fractions, etc, etc) that the idea that students would be learning different topics at different times just didn’t compute.

Building Consensus

In my next entry, I’ll explain how the program evolved both to improve the quality of instruction and to better communicate the value add to all stakeholders. By adding a leveled grouping component, students were better able to learn and problem-solve collaboratively – anyone observing a class could easily see students’ enthusiasm and their engagement with both the content and with their peers. Scheduling class visits for parents and co-workers allowed others to appreciate how technology wasn’t an end in itself but part of a larger process. I also began posting videos (both instructional and in-class footage) and other resources online to help parents understand how Khan worked and to see how it was integrated into class. Some parents felt left-in-the-dark because they couldn’t look up the day’s lesson in the text and re-teach it to their children as they “helped” them with their homework, so I began finding ways that parents could access instruction online (I still think such a model is problematic, as it assumes students should be learning at home from tutors and parents rather than encouraging teachers and families to find ways for students to learn while in school, but that’s a story for another day).

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Impact of blended learning initiative on Grade 5 2015 mean ERB scores

Fortunately, as time went on, the benefits of the program became clearer to more of the community at-large. Families that were most resistant began to come around once they saw the progress their children were making. Struggling students were able to move quickly through remedial content, and advanced students were challenged in a way they had not been before. When test scores came back showing double-digit percentile increases in mean and median scores, I was ecstatic. Of 26 students, 13 improved by over 20 percentile points in either reasoning or computation. One student’s reasoning score jumped from the 20th to the 90th percentile. Though there is a lot to be learned outside of test scores, they were one more way to show that the risk was paying off.

What do you think?

Do you have a story to share about implementing a blended learning program? Are you looking to gamify your classes? Please share your thoughts on this latest entry or tell us about your personal experience with blended and gamified learning.

 

 

 

Gaming the System

It’s hard to attend an education conference, especially an EdTech conference, these days without hearing about Gamified Learning. As with any buzzword, it can be hard to tell the difference between a bandwagon worth hopping on and empty hype. It can be equally hard to pin down a definition, let alone best practices, for a term that is just gaining traction. With that in mind, let’s take a look at what Gamified Learning really means, and why it may have the potential to increase student engagement and the quality of learning.

A Student’s Dilemma

Every day, our students are faced with a dilemma – should they do what they feel like doing, or should they do what their teachers are telling them to do. Traditionally, educators thought that students need to just ‘do what they’re told,’ because following directions will prepare them for the way the real world works.

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Developments in the way we think about student learning have challenged these assumptions in several ways. We now know that students learn in different ways, so when we can give them options about the pace or path of their learning ( Differentiated Instruction – Courtesy ASCD), engagement and achievement increase. We also know that while taking notes and filling in worksheets may help students memorize a list of facts or a procedure, these are rarely the most effective methods; perhaps more concerning is that teaching through direct instruction almost always requires students to remember (the lowest level of thinking on Bloom’s Taxonomy), and rarely asks students to evaluate, analyze, or apply. Sadly, much of a typical student’s school-day does not even require they understand the facts and procedures they are expected to remember.

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Educators are also beginning to appreciate that, even assuming we know more about the skills students would need to succeed in today’s world, the world that students will inherit may require a different skill set, known as 21st Century Skills. Creative educators have looked at the way games engage students for hours on end, and rather than fighting the draw of games, they’ve studied principles of gaming and sought to incorporate these principles into their classes. Part of the beauty of Gamified Learning is that researchers find that games do more than just engage students: they create environments that mimic real world situations, and good games require higher-order thinking skills to succeed.

Principles of Gaming

Gamified Learning pioneers have identified a number of elements that educators can borrow from game designers in creating GL environments. While not all games incorporate the same principles, here are some elements common to many GL environments.

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INCENTIVES: Gamified Learning involves creating an environment where virtual rewards are tied to the objectives we want students to achieve. As such, points and badges are central elements to most GL initiatives. Depending on our educational objectives and what will motivate our students, achievements can be celebrated publicly via leaderboards or progress bars, or they can be a private way for students to evaluate their own mastery.

When points from games translate directly into a student’s grade, there is a powerful incentive for student achievement. Of course, we need to be careful when using a game to determine student grades. Before tying game results to student grades, I would suggest consulting research on the effects of using grades to incentivize learning, such as this article from CBE Life Sciences Education by Jeffrey Schinske and Kimberly Tanner. One key finding is that grades can incentivize rote learning, but can actually detract from higher-order thinking. In addition, grades can have a number of harmful effects on students, and often inadvertently incentivize behavior we do not want to encourage.

In my own classes, the amount of time students spend working on an online platform influences their grades, but I don’t grade them on their achievement in the game (number of correct answers or level of mastery). That way, incentives are tied to a low-order, but necessary, component of learning (task completion), while the more complex and personal process of developing mastery is celebrated informally, or considered an end in itself.

EXPLORATION: Another aspect of gaming that can translate to an educational setting is the idea of exploration. In a game, students learn about their environment by trying things out. Very few students sit down and read a manual before trying to beat a level in their favorite game. They learn by trial and error, reinforcing habits that are essential to learning and innovation, specifically the idea that mistakes are essential steps on the road to discovery and understanding. Exploration also helps students see that their response to making a mistake (ideally with persistence and flexible thinking) determines how successful they are in attaining mastery.

PERSONALIZATION: Another benefit to Gamified Learning is the personalization that is present in gaming. If a child wants to try a new video game, she does not start at the same level of a peer who is more experienced. She begins at a level that challenges her to an appropriate degree. As she achieves mastery of one level she moves on to the next. A student can adjust her starting point, pace, and even path to meet her individual needs.

MODDING/HACKING: The opportunity to modify games is yet another way that students can take ownership of their learning through gamification. As students become familiar with the games we introduce them to (digital or otherwise), they will often come up with ideas for modifying the game, adding their own content, or even extending the game into other contexts. Providing such opportunities can help students reach the highest level of learning on Bloom’s taxonomy, Creating. It also indicates that students are highly engaged in the learning process that you as a teacher/coach have succeeded in creating,  making use of the Gradual Release of Responsibility model as described by Fisher and Frey.

The Institute of Play has a treasure trove of resources to learn more about and to implement GL in your school or classroom.

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Games Vs. Gamification

It can be tempting to think we’ve gamified our class because we have created a fun activity, but true gamification requires that we have taken significant steps to put students at the center of their learning by creating a learning environment that they can navigate on their own. Many of us have been using games to spice up our classes for years, but playing Jeopardy with your class is not the same as Gamified Learning. In a quiz game, students are incentivized with points, but the learning objective is still the simple memorization of facts. In addition, these games are a check that learning has taken place, whereas in GL, the learning occurs through the playing of the game. A quiz game does nothing to personalize the learning objectives or path toward learning objectives for each student. If the teacher is at the front of the room directing the entire class, it’s a good clue that you just have a game rather than Gamified Learning.

While the difference between games and GL can seem subtle, the resulting impact on their learning can be enormous. Keep in mind that introducing one element of gamification at a time can still be a worthwhile objective, and is often the most effective way to bring about the type of mindset shift that true GL requires. In next week’s post, we’ll look at a few models for Gamified Learning and best practices for getting GL off the ground in your school.

Game On?

As always, I would love to hear your thoughts on this week’s topic – have you tried Gamified Learning in your class? Do you have any questions about how to get started? Please share your thoughts in the comments section below.

Getting Started with Leveled Groupings

Conducting a Class with Leveled Groups

If you were concerned about content coverage when we brought up the idea of self-guided learning, you may have nightmares about the idea of leveled groupings. In  my experience, though, you don’t need to sacrifice coverage in order to allow students to work at their own levels. While it may seem paradoxical for students to work at their own pace and meet content standards, I have found that students can learn so much more effectively when work is targeted at their level, that even students moving at a relatively slow pace will cover more content than they would in a chalk-and-talk class. Of course, simply having students sit in circles is not enough, and the success of a small-group class depends on intentional groupings and best practices for facilitating group work.

Equity in Groupings

When it comes to differentiating content (as opposed to differentiating instructional or assessment methods) the conversation can easily seem very controversial.  “If the advanced students move at their own pace, won’t the other students fall even farther behind?”

Image Courtesy of http://smithsystem.com
Image Courtesy of http://smithsystem.com

This question raises issues of equity that have been debated up to the Supreme Court in cases such as Hobson v Hansen. Bonnie Grossen makes the case that the courts have supported leveled groupings when they show demonstrable benefit for students at all levels, when the groupings are flexible, and when they target specific subjects as opposed to a students’ entire schedule. In other words, in order for grouping to be effective (and legal), students must be able to change groups as their demonstrated competency changes – after all, the goal is to provide better targeted instruction. If we really believe we are targeting student needs, we should expect that at least some of these students will advance quickly enough that they need to be moved to a more challenging group. In addition, a student’s ability in math cannot determine their grouping in English, and vice-versa.

In her article entitled “Ability Grouping is not Just Tracking Anymore,” Carol L. Tieso presents a careful examination of many types of student grouping, and emphasizes that the implementation strategy employed is the main determining factor of its effectiveness: “When ability grouping is utilized in a flexible and temporary manner, with appropriate curricular adjustment, significant achievement gains can be realized.”

Lesson Design

One way to adapt a traditional classroom for small group learning is to simply rotate from group to group – you can give the same type of lecture you would give to a full class, but targeted to a smaller group – you can differentiate by the pace of the lecture, or by giving the same lecture at different times. While you work with one group of students, the others can be completing independent activities.

If you are looking for something a bit more outside the box, Inquiry-Based Learning will make the learning process even more student-centered. This article from WNET.org is an oldie-but-goodie that gives a clear and concise overview of IBL. The basic idea is that students can often figure out much of what we are accustomed to ‘teaching’ them, and when they do, they tend to be more engaged in the process. They also develop a deeper understanding of the underlying concepts.

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Intentional Grouping

Whether you are using leveled grouping or mixed grouping, it is important that your grouping decisions are made with intent – decide why you are conducting a small group lesson, and ensure that your grouping decisions support that purpose. In a previous post, I discussed how to use data from an online platform, such as Khan Academy or NoRedInk, to help you in deciding how to split students into groups and what content to assign them. This system works best when teaching a progression of skills, such as math or grammar, for which different students may all be at different stages of mastery.

You can also used leveled groups to have students read materials (fiction or non-fiction) at different levels. Some tools, such as Newsela (for current events) and Books That Grow (fiction and non-fiction texts) will adjust the reading level of the same text, or you can have students select materials appropriate for their levels. In addition to giving leveled reading assignments, I use a template that includes what I want them to get out of the assignment, so that all groups can complete the same template for different texts. You can download the template I use for Short Stories here:

Group Work Story Analysis Template

Social-Emotional Considerations

One thing I realized once I began conducting these classes is that students will have a wide range of Social-Emotional readiness for this type of process. Part of the beauty of group-work, though, is that students will develop collaborative skills and come to better understand their own learning process at the same time they are learning content. When my students work in small groups, I cycle from table to table. I generally try to avoid giving them answers, but seek to scaffold their group process by asking questions.

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Courtesy of CASEL.org

The Higher Education Academy has produced a useful guide called “Small Group Teaching: A ToolKit for Learning” that covers the benefits of small group learning as well as implementation strategies. Though it is written for higher-ed, I have found the same principles to be effective in my 5th grade class – just keep in mind that younger students may need more time and scaffolding to work effectively in groups – once they get the hang of it, though, they should make up for lost time by learning new material much more quickly, not to mention the social-emotional benefits they will accrue by consistent and purposeful communication with their peers.

Share your stories and ask your questions

What have been your experiences with leveled-groupings? Are you thinking of trying them in your class but still have some unanswered questions? Let us know your thoughts by commenting below.